The CSM program brings together faculty and students from Berkeley's
College of Engineering, Haas School of Business,
and Department of Economics in a continuing program addressing key aspects of
semiconductor manufacturing. The program was established in 1991 by a grant
from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. It has received continuing support from
the Sloan Foundation and additional support from the semiconductor industry in
the U.S. and Asia. The program has several elements:
- Comparative studies of the
world's best semiconductor plants to identify world-class managerial,
organizational, technical, and human resource practices.
- Specific research projects
focused on improving key semiconductor manufacturing processes and related
business and management practices. These typically provide the basis for
master's theses and doctoral dissertations in engineering, business, and
economics. Fifteen doctoral degrees have been completed.
- A dissemination program
that has produced 52 RESEARCH
REPORTS, a similar number of conference presentations and archival
publications, and three professional short courses targeted at managers
and engineers in the semiconductor industry.
The goal of the main comparative study, begun in 1992, is to
develop a systematic account of the practices which explain best manufacturing
performance in semiconductor production on a world-wide basis. The effort has
established comparative benchmarks and performed comparative evaluation along
dimensions of technology, business practices, and business environment.
More than 30 semiconductor wafer fabrication sites (fabs) have been
evaluated over the past 5 years. Sites are selected by our research team based
upon a firm's willingness to participate and on our judgment of their effective
manufacturing performance. Detailed quantitative data on production equipment
and processes, staffing, production volumes, and yield of salable product is
collected using a 100 page questionnaire and collected in an SQL database. We
collect time-series data over 3 or 4 year intervals in order to track progress
in factory productivity. Data is reported only in anonymous or aggregated forms
to protect confidential information. We give participating fabs detailed
reports on their comparative performance on each quantitative metric.
Today there is considerable uniformity around the world in specific
manufacturing equipment and processes. Many semiconductor products are
commodities in the sense that fully equivalent products are available from
several or many manufacturers. Despite the many similarities, we observe large
site to site variations in all measures of productivity.
Following return of a completed questionnaire, a team of 6-8 faculty and
student researchers visit each site for 2 days. Interpreters are included when
needed. The team interviews personnel, separately at each level from production
operator to site manager, in an effort to understand the practices and systems
that underlie best performance.
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Other On-line CSM
- Metric Scores for ten CSM
participant fabrication plants during the period 1996-2000 (.doc,
- Executive Summary for Final Report on
Findings from Benchmarking Eight-inch, sub-350nm Wafer Fabrication Lines
- New Benchmarking Results
presented at the "Brooks Automation Seminars" Spring 2000.
Includes latest graphs of comparative performance by region in (.pdf, 132
- Slides for a summary
presentation on benchmarking results (.html, 6.8 MB, incremental transfer,
- Same Slides for a summary
presentation of benchmarking results (.pdf, 0.85 MB in one file, no index)
- Benchmarking Semiconductor
Manufacturing, paper from IEEE Trans. on Semiconductor
Manufacturing, May 1996 (1.6 MB Adobe .pdf). Copyright 1996, IEEE.
Includes data from 16 fabs, 1992-94.
- Benchmarking Semiconductor Manufacturing,
a paper presented at the International Reliability Workshop, October
1997 (35 KB Adobe .pdf). Includes summary data from 28 fabs,
- Spreadsheet list of major
international semiconductor manufacturing partnership and alliances,
- Fab Economics Models. Excel Workbook to
compute fab expenses and foregone revenues as functions of scores for CSM
technical performance metrics. Costs are expressed on a per wafer basis.
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Last updated 03/05/2007 by David Hodges